粒子物理导论(英文版) 杜东生 科学出版社 PDF电子教材 PDF电子书 大学教材电子版 电子课本 网盘下载(价值268元)【高清非扫描版】(2022年08月)

《粒子物理导论(英文版)》杜东生 科学出版社 PDF电子教材 PDF电子书 大学教材电子版 电子课本 网盘下载(价值268元)【高清非扫描版】(2022年08月)

粒子物理导论(英文版) 杜东生 科学出版社 PDF电子教材 PDF电子书 大学教材电子版 电子课本 网盘下载(价值268元)【高清非扫描版】(2022年08月)- 网课搜【wangkeso.com】

Introduction to Particle Physics

图书简介:

本书侧重于粒子物理学的基础知识,同时尽可能多地涵盖前沿进展。详细介绍了粒子的对称性原理、性质和分类、强子的夸克模型以及粒子间的相互作用。进一步提出了电磁和弱相互作用的统一理论和强相互作用的规范理论——量子色动力学(QCD)。在弱相互作用部分,系统地介绍了电中性粒子和中性K介子、中性B介子和中性D介子的反粒子的混合以及CP不守恒。在强相互作用部分,简要讨论了电荷、奇异态、胶体和混杂态、晶格规范理论。还介绍了轻子系统的中微子振荡和CP破坏。此外,本书还简要介绍了标准模型之外的几种新模型,如大统一理论和超对称模型。最后介绍了宇宙学与粒子物理关系的基本内容

目录:

About the Authors
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Chapter 1. Overview 1
References 7
Chapter 2. Symmetry and Conservation Law 9
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 The Action, Equation of Motion and Conserved Quantities 10
2.3 Parity Transformation 14
2.3.1 Klein-Gordon field *(x) 15
2.3.2 Parity transformation of fermion field 16
2.3.3 Parity transformation of vector field 18
2.4 Charge Conjugation 19
2.4.1 Charge conjugation of scalar field 19
2.4.2 Charge conjugation of fermion field *(x) 19
2.4.3 Charge conjugation of vector field A*{x) 22
2.5 Application: Furry Theorem — A Particle of Spin 1 Cannot Decay to 27 22
2.5.1 Furry theorem 22
2.5.2 Particles of spin 1 cannot decay into two photons 23
2.6 Time Reversal 25
2.6.1 Time reversal of Klein-Gordon field *(x) 29
2.6.2 Time reversal of fermion field 29
2.6.3 Time reversal of electromagnetic field A* (x) 30
2.7 CPT Theorem 33
References 34
Chapter 3. The Classification and Properties of Particles: Lepton and Hadrons 37
3.1 Four Types of Interactions 37
3.2 Lepton and Lepton Number Conservation 40
3.2.1 Electron, muon and neutrino 40
3.2.2 * and its neutrino v* 43
3.2.3 Helicity of neutrinos 44
3.2.4 Lepton number conservation 46
3.3 Hadrons: Conservation of Baryon Numbers 47
3.3.1 π meson 48
3.3.2 Nucleon, antinucleon and baryon number conservation 52
3.3.3 Strange particles 53
3.3.4 Resonance 57
3.4 Scattering Cross Section, Particle Lifetime and Decay Width 63
3.4.1 Scattering cross section 63
3.4.2 Particle lifetime and decay width 67
3.5 Kinematics of Particle Decay 68
3.5.1 Two-body decay 68
3.5.2 Three-body decay, Dalitz diagram 69
References 73
Chapter 4. Isospin and G Parity 75
4.1 Isospin 75
4.1.1 The concept of isospin 75
4.1.2 Isospin transformation 78
4.1.3 The law of isospin conservation in strong interaction 83
4.1.4 The isospin of mesons and baryons 84
4.1.5 An example of isospin analysis of physical processes 88
4.2 Exchange Symmetry: Generalized Identity Principle  90
4.3 Isospin Violation 92
4.4 G Parity 93
References 97
Chapter 5. Quark Model of Hadrons 99
5.1 Mathematical Basics 100
5.1.1 Decomposition of SU(n) group representation product, Young tableau 100
5.1.2 ensor analysis of the SU(3) group 104
5.1.3 SU(3) group generators and Casmir operators 107
5.2 SU(3) Quark Model, the SU(3) Flavor Wave Functions for Mesons and Baxyons 109
5.2.1 The flavor wave functions for the pseudoscalar meson octet and singlet 111
5.2.2 Flavor wave functions for the vector meson octet and singlet 114
5.2.3 Flavor wave functions for baryon octet and decuplet 115
5.3 Color Degree of Freedom 122
5.3.1 The relationship of baryon spin and statistics 123
5.3.2 π°*rr 123
5.3.3 Measurement of R value in e+e- annihilation process 124
5.4 Mass Formula of Hadrons 127
5.5 Mixing of Meson Singlet and Octet 129
5.6 OZI Rule 134
5.7 SU(6) Symmetry 135
5.8 Orbital Excitation States and Radial Excitation States,Multi-quark States and Exotic States 137
5.8.1 Orbital and radial excitation states 137
5.8.2 Multi-quark states and exotic states 138
5.9 The Discovery of c,b,t Quarks 139
5.10 Quark Confinement 140
References 141
Chapter 6. Electromagnetic Interaction 143
6.1 QED and Its Feynman Rule 144
6.2 M0ller Scattering 149
6.3 Bhabha Scattering 154
6.4 The Electromagnetic Form Factors of Nucleons 156
6.4.1 Electron-proton elastic scattering assuming proton being a point particle 157
6.4.2 Elastic scattering of electron-proton 159
6.5 Inelastic Scattering of Electron-Proton 166
6.5.1 Structure function of inelastic scattering 166
6.5.2 The structure function applied to elastic scattering 169
6.6 The Parton Model for Nucleons 171
6.7 The Unification of Parton and Quark Model 174
References 177
Chapter 7. Weak Interactions 179
7.1 Looking Back to History 179
7.2 Classification of Weak Decays 181
7.3 Nuclear β Decay 183
7.4 The Discovery of Parity Violation 185
7.4.1 *-θ Puzzle 185
7.4.2 Parity violation in β decays of cobalt 60 nuclei 186
7.5 The V-A Theory of Weak Interactions 187
7.5.1 Pure leptonic decay 187
7.5.2 Semi-leptonic decay 189
7.6 Cabibbo Theory and GIM Mechanism 191
7.7 Kobayashi-Maskawa Model 194
7.8 The Limitation of the Four Fermion Point-like Interactions and the Intermediate Vector Bosons 196
7.9 Conservation of Vector Current 198
7.10 Chiral Symmetry Breaking and PC AC 201
7.11 Mixing of Neutral Mesons and CP Violation 205
7.11.1 Quantum mechanical description 205
7.11.2 K°-*°mixing and CP violation 212
7.11.3 B°-*°mixing and CP violation 224
7.11.4 D°-*°mixing and CP violation 238
References 243
Chapter 8. Gauge Theory of Electroweak Unification 247
8.1 The Higgs Mechanism 248
8.2 Yang-Mills Theory 253
8.3 Glashow-Weinberg-Salam Electroweak Unification Model 259
8.4 The Vacuum Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking:The Higgs Mechanism 268
8.4.1 The kinetic energy, mass and self-interaction term of scalar field 272
8.4.2 The mass term of gauge field 274
8.4.3 The interaction term of the scalar and gauge fields 278
8.5 The Gain of the Fermion Mass: Yukawa Coupling 279
8.6 The Interaction of Fermion and Gauge Field II 285
8.7 The Interaction of Gauge Fields 288
8.8 Feynman Rule in the Renormalization Gauge(R* Gauge) 294
8.8.1 For pure scalar field 295
8.8.2 For the interaction of scalar and gauge fields 295
8.8.3 For ghost fields 298
8.8.4 The kinetic energy term of the Lagrangian in gauge 302
8.8.5 The interaction terms of scalar and fermions 303
8.9 The Discovery of Higgs Boson 310
References 314
Chapter 9. Theory of Strong Interaction: QCD 315
9.1 The SU(3) Gauge Symmetry of Color 316
9.2 The Quantization of Gauge Field and Fermion Field 320
9.2.1 The path integral quantization 320
9.2.2 Reduction formula 328
9.2.3 The quantization of gauge field 331
9.2.4 The quantization of fermion field and Grassmann algebra 336
9.3 The Effective Lagrangian of QCD and Perturbation Theory 342
9.3.1 The effective Lagrangian of QCD 342
9.3.2 Perturbation expansion 344
9.4 Divergence and Regularization of Loop Corrections 356
9.5 The Renormalization of Divergence 367
9.5.1 The superficial degree of divergence 368
9.5.2 The renormalizability of a theory 371
9.5.3 The renormalization of QCD 375
9.5.4 One-loop result of the renormalization constants 385
9.6 BUST Symmetry and the Generalized Ward-Takahashi Identity 391
9.6.1 BRST symmetry 391
9.6.2 The generalized Ward-Takahashi identity(Slavnov-Taylor identity) 395
9.7 The Renormalization Group Equation andthe Solution 401
9.7.1 The renormalization group 401
9.7.2 The renormalization group equations 409
9.7.3 The solution of the renormalization group equation 413
9.8 Asymptotic Freedom 416
9.9 Structure Function, Parton Distribution Function and the Application in Perturbative QCD 424
9.9.1 Structural function of deep inelastic scattering process 424
9.9.2 The prediction of QCD to the variation of structurefunction with Q2 427
9.9.3 Examples for application 429
9.10 A Brief Introduction to Some Bound States in QCD 432
9.10.1 e+e-collision, charmonium and Bottomonium 432
9.10.2 Glueball and hybrid state 434
9.11 Nonperturbative QCD and Lattice Gauge Theory 437
9.12 The Strong CP Problem 439
References 451
Chapter 10. Neutrino Oscillation 455
10.1 Experimental Evidence for Neutrino Oscillation 457
10.1.1 Atmospheric neutrino oscillation 457
10.1.2 Accelerator neutrino oscillation 459
10.1.3 Solar neutrino oscillation 460
10.1.4 Reactor neutrino oscillation 462
10.2 Theoretical Description of Neutrino Oscillation 464
10.2.1 Neutrino oscillation in vacuum 464
10.2.2 Neutrino oscillation in matter 468
10.3 Dirac Neutrino and Majorana Neutrino 472
10.3.1 Dirac neutrino 472
10.3.2 Majorana neutrino 474
10.4 Neutrino Mass and See-Saw Mechanism 476
10.5 Parameterization of Neutrino Mixing Matrix 480
10.6 CP Violation in Neutrino Oscillation 481
10.7 Neutrino Mass Hierarchy Problem 482
10.8 Perspectives 484
References 486
Chapter 11.Beyond Standard Model 489
11.1 Grand Unified Theories for Strong, Electromagnetic and Weak Interactions 490
11.1.1 SU(5) grand unified theory 490
11.1.2 SO(2N) grand unified models 509
11.1.3 Flavor unification 509
11.2 Supersymmetric Models 510
11.2.1 Superspace and superfields 513
11.2.2 Global supersymmetry and local supersymmetry(Supergravity) 514
11.2.3 Global supersymmetric theory and minimal supersymmetric standard model 515
11.3 Superstring Theory and Brane Theory 526
References 527
Chapter 12. Particle Physics and Cosmology 529
12.1 Basics of the Big Bang ACDM Model 530
12.1.1 Hubble’s law 531
12.1.2 The Robertson-Walker metric and the Friedmann equation 532
12.1.3 Definitions of some cosmological parameters 534
12.1.4 The redshift and its relation with the physical distance 536
12.1.5 Some important solutions to the standard ACDM model 538
12.1.6 The age of the Universe 540
12.2 Hot Big Bang and Radiation in the Early Universe 542
12.3 Neutrino Decoupling and Cosmic Neutrino Background 548
12.4 Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Abundances of Primordial Light Elements 551
12.5 Cosmological Baryon-Antibaryon Asymmetry 555
12.6 Dark Matter 558
12.7 Dark Energy 561
12.8 Cosmic Microwave Background 565
12.8.1 Transition of the Universe to its matter-dominated epoch 565
12.8.2 Formation of the CMB 567
12.8.3 Anisotropies of the CMB 568
12.9 Three Cosmic Problems and the Inflation Mechanism 572
12.9.1 Three problems in cosmology 572
12.9.2 The inflation mechanism 574
References 578
Chapter 13. Epilogue 581
Appendix I. Calculation of Some Cross Sections 585
Appendix II. Table of Physical Constants 609
Index 617

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